Surveying : Introduction to the Concept of Surveying

Introduction to Surveying Surveying is the science and art of determining the relative positions of various points above, on or below the surface of the earth. The relative positions in surveying are determined by measuring horizontal distances, vertical distances (elevations}, horizontal angles and vertical angles accurately by using various surveying instruments. Important Objectives of Surveying … Read more Surveying : Introduction to the Concept of Surveying

Ceramics : Properties & Classification of Ceramic

Definition of Ceramics : The word ceramics is of Greek origin ( keromos ) meaning potter’s earth or day ceramics. In present days, Ceramic is used to deflate wide range of silicates, metallic oxides and other combinations. Clay products are the most Common and appropriate example of ceramic materials. General Properties of Ceramics : Ceramics … Read more Ceramics : Properties & Classification of Ceramic

Aggregate | Classification & Test on Aggregate

What are Aggregate in Construction Industry ? In the construction industry, aggregate are used as filler material in the production of concrete and mortar. Aggregate occupy around 70% to 80% of the volume of the concrete, reduce shrinkage effects and minimize costs. The coarse aggregate form the main matrix of concrete and the fine aggregates … Read more Aggregate | Classification & Test on Aggregate

Particle Size Distribution of Soil

Particle Size Distribution Particle Size Distribution or the percentage of grains of different sizes in a given soil is an important property of soil. Particle size analysis of coarse soils is carried out by sieve analysis or mechanical analysis whereas fine-grained soils are analysed by hydrometer analysis. In general, a combined analysis is carried out … Read more Particle Size Distribution of Soil

Timber – Classification, Types, Defects in Timber

Definition Of Timber Timber or Lumber is nothing but wood used for building and other engineering purposes. It is obtained from the trunk of  trees. Trees give different types of timber which can be used for different kinds of works. Classification of Trees : Exogenous Trees : These trees grow outward and have distinct consecutive … Read more Timber – Classification, Types, Defects in Timber